Friday, January 23, 2009

Mid Year Study Guide

Here it is....what you've been waiting for....

Review your lab reports!!! The graphs and results and discussion questions are included on the mid-year.

Chapter 1

What is a hypothesis?

What is a theory?

What is the scientific method?

What is a controlled experiment? Why is it important?

What are the 3 domains? What are the kingdoms?

What are the 7 characteristics of living things?

Chapter 2

What is an element? a molecule? a compound?

What is the atomic number of an element? The mass number?

What is an isotope? A radioactive isotope?

What is an ionic vs. a covalent bond? A polar vs. nonpolar covalent bond?

What are hydrogen bonds? Why are they important in molecules, especially water?

What is the pH scale? What represents acidity vs. alkalinity?

What is a solute, solvent and solution?

Chapter 3: Organic Molecules

  1. What is an organic compound?
  2. What is an isomer? Be able to recognize structural isomers.
  3. Functional groups – what are they? What are they characteristic of (i.e. alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, etc.)? What class of macromolecules are they present in – carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids?
  4. What are the building blocks of each of the classes of molecules? How many are there?
  5. What is dehydration synthesis? What is hydrolysis?
  6. Carbohydrates:
    1. What elements make up carbohydrates? What is their function? What is an example?
    2. Monosaccharides – glucose, fructose, galactose
    3. Polysaccharides - What are starch, glycogen and cellulose made from? Where is each found?
    4. Be able to recognize a carbohydrate.
  7. Lipids:
    1. Why are lipids grouped together?
    2. What elements primarily compose fats? What are the examples of lipids – fats, waxes, phospholipids, steroids – and what is the function of each type?
    3. Be able to recognize a triglyceride molecule.
  8. Proteins:
    1. Know the general functions of proteins (structure, contractile, storage, defense, transport, communication, enzymes)
    2. Describe the structure of a protein. What elements are in proteins? What functional groups are present?
    3. What are some examples of proteins?
    4. Know the four levels of the protein’s structure: primary (amino acid sequence), secondary (alpha helix and pleated sheets), tertiary (overall shape – globular vs. fibrous), and quaternary (relationship between multiple polypeptide chains). Do all proteins have all four layers?
  9. Nucleic Acids:
    1. What are the subunits of the nucleotide (sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)

Chapter 4: A Tour of the Cell

  1. What is the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell? Which is more complex?
  2. Make a list (or a chart) of all the cell organelles mentioned in the chapter. What is the function of each? Where in the cell is it found?
  3. Draw a plant cell and an animal cell. How are they similar? How are they different?
  4. How are the chloroplasts and the mitochondria similar? How are they different?


1. What is selective permeability?

2. Why are membranes important within the cell?

3. What is the cell membrane composed of and how is its structure helpful in its function?

4. Define the terms: passive transport, diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport. Give biological examples of each of these processes.

5. What is tonicity? Why is it important? Give an example of a biologically important situation of a hypotonic solution. Of a hypertonic solution. Of an isotonic solution.

6. What is a concentration gradient? What does it mean to travel down a gradient? Against a gradient? Are concentration gradients independent of one another?

7. What is the importance of concentration gradients within our body?

8. What type of solution is healthiest for animal cells? For plant cells?

9. What are the processes that transport very large molecules?


  1. Describe an exergonic and an endergonic reaction.
  2. What is energy coupling? How does it help a cell perform work?
  3. What is cellular metabolism?
  4. How does the structure of ATP make it a “high energy” molecule?
  5. What is the process by which the 3rd phosphate group is cleaved off of the ATP molecule?


  1. What do enzymes do for a reaction? Why are they important for life?
  2. How specific are enzymes and their shapes for their substrate? Where does the substrate bind with the enzyme?
  3. What is the “induced fit” model?
  4. What is a negative feedback loop?

Chapter 6


What is aerobic respiration?

What is anaerobic respiration? How much ATP does it produce?

What is cellular respiration? How much ATP does it produce?

What are redox reactions? What is oxidation (gain or loss of electrons?)? What is reduction (gain or loss of electrons?)?

Explain in term of cellular respiration why we breathe oxygen, and exhale carbon dioxide?

What is the difference between substrate level phosphorylation and chemiosmotic (or oxidative) phosphorylation?


Where does glycolysis occur?

What are the net (Total/overall) products of glycolysis?

Why do we invest energy to make glycolysis occur?

How much of the energy available in a glucose molecule is harvested as ATP in glycolysis?

If oxygen is present, where does pyruvic acid go? What happens to it?

If oxygen is not present, where does pyruvic acid go? What happens to it?

Why would yeast choose to perform anaerobic respiration, as in our lab, even though oxygen was available to them?


What is the purpose of fermentation? (What does it recycle for glycolysis to continue?)

When does fermentation take place?

What does a build up of lactic acid cause in our bodies?


Where does the Krebs cycle take place?

What are the net (Total/overall) products of the Krebs cycle? For each acetyl coA molecule? For each glucose molecule?

How is pyruvic acid changed before it will enter the Krebs cycle?

What is the primary energy carrier that is produced in the Krebs cycle?


Where does the electron transport chain take place?

What are the net (Total/overall) products of the ETC?

What molecules enter the electron transport chain?

What specifically happens to the electrons in the ETC? What is the final electron acceptor in this system? What happens to that product after it initially accepts electrons?

How is the transport of H+ ions linked with the ETC? Why is this important?

What does the proton gradient drive the ATP synthase? Why does it only happen at this specific location in the membrane (i.e. why can’t the H+ ions move across the membrane at any point)?

Chapter 7 - Photosynthesis

What is the path an electron takes through photosynthesis?

What is the balanced equation for photosynthesis? What is reduced and what is oxidized?

What is an autotroph? A producer? (What are we?)

Why is chlorophyll green? What wavelength (in nm) does it reflect?

Describe the anatomy of a leaf. What is the stomata and what happens here? The thylakoid – what is present and what occurs? The chloroplasts – what happens here? The grana? The stroma – what happens here?

What are the light reactions? What happens and what is created?

What is the dark reaction? What happens and what is created?

What is a photosystem? What is the difference between Photosystems I and II?

What is the reaction center? What are antenna molecules? Where do the electrons come from that are put into the photosystem and eventually move to the primary electron acceptor?

What are the differences between the electron transport chains in the mitochondria and the ETCs in the thylakoid?

How many times the Calvin cycle have to turn to produce on G3P? one glucose? How much CO2, ATP and NADPH does each of these consume?

How do plants store their excess sugar?

What is carbon fixation?

Chapter 8 - Mitosis and Meiosis

1. Know the multitudinous definitions that are in the chapter: sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction, life cycle, chromosomes, chromatin, sister chromatids, centromere, cell cyle, mitosis, mitotic spindle, kinetochore, cleavage furrow, cell plate, anchorage dependence, density-dependent inhibition, cell cycle control center, tumor, malignant vs. benign tumors, metastasis, somatic cell, homologous chromosom, autosomes, diploid, haploid, gametes, fertilization, zygote, meiosis, crossing over, chiasma, genetic recombination.

2. karyotype, trisomy 21 (Down’s syndrome), nondisjunction, deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation. You do NEED to know these terms, this is a correction from the first email.

3. What are the four phases of mitosis and meiosis? What similarities exist in these phases between mitosis, meiosis I and meiosis II? What makes them different? Which one process (mitosis, meiosis I and meiosis II) is most different from the others? Explain your answer.

4. How much time of the entire cell cycle is spent in Interphase? M phase?

5. How does cytokinesis differ for plant and animal cells?

6. What are the three functions of mitosis? Briefly describe each.

Chpt 9 – Patterns of Inheritance

  1. Mendel’s principles
    1. Dominant vs. recessive traits
    2. Genotype s. Phenotype
    3. Parental, F1 and F2 generations
  2. Punnett Squares and the rules of probability
    1. Monohybrid cross – define and know expected ratios
    2. Dihybrid cross - define and know expected ratios
    3. Family Pedigrees
  3. Variations of Mendel’s Patterns
    1. Incomplete dominance
    2. Codominance
    3. Sex linkage
    4. Pleiotropy
    5. Polygenic inheritance
  4. Chromosomal basis of inheritance
    1. Chromosomal theory of inheritance
    2. Sources of variation
    3. Linked genes

No comments: