Saturday, February 23, 2013

Final Exam

Your final exam is on Monday February 25th at 9am in the Varsity Court.

A couple of answers to questions that have been asked in classes – just want to make sure that everyone has the same information about the final exam.

What’s the format?
There are 12 “Modified” Multiple-choice questions and 2 Free-Response questions.  I am estimating it will take 50 minutes to answer the multiple choice questions and explain your answers and then 20 minutes for each Free-Response.

What’s the relevant content?  Check out the objective lists in the side bar!  

You can also refer to the modules:

This term we have covered four units with the following Modules –
Nervous System: 21, 129, 130, and 132
Endocrine System: 22, 140, 141, 142, and 164
Cellular Inheritance: 33, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, and 43
Molecular Inheritance: 45, 46, 49, 50, 51, and 53

About ½ of the Multiple-Choice questions are related to the PCR - PTC tasting lab.  If you think about it, the lab involved genes coding for receptors that are connected to the brain through the nervous system.  Much of the term is related to this system.

Also don’t forget the importance of being able to apply big ideas and themes in biology …

How would you prepare for this exam?
1.      Most important is to get a good night’s sleep – difficult, if not impossible, to think with a sleep-deprived brain.  Also wake up with time to eat breakfast and go through your normal morning routine.  Studies have shown that waking up takes your brain about 30 minutes - hitting the snooze button until 5 minutes before the exam will produce a condition called "sleep persistance."  In either case, no sleep or sleeping until exam time, you might as well hit yourself over the head with a brick.

2.      Go over past tests.  I’ve distilled the important ideas from each unit into the tests.  The final is a further distillation.

3.      Read summaries of the modules – Do NOT read the Modules themselves.

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

PTC and SNP's

Today you will research PTC and SNP's.  Since this lab is an integral part of your final exam, today's class will help you prepare for this final assessment of the term.

Begin by reading about PTC here.

As you read, answer these questions in your own words.  I am not collecting these answers, this is solely for your own exam preparation, however we will discuss your answers.

What does the PTC gene influence?
How can the prevalence of PTC in the population be an example of natural selection?
What is a heterozygote advantage and how is PTC an example of this?

Next, work through the interactive reading and graphic on SNP's here.

What is a SNP?
What do SNP's look like at the DNA level?
Can a single SNP tell you a lot about a person?
What is a haplotype?
Summarize how scientists can apply SNP profiles to drug choices.
Compare and contrast genomic and functional approaches to SNP's

Evaluate this claim:

You are researching SNP's and come across a Wiki site where the author says that SNPs are a type of point mutation.

Is the aforementioned claim OK, great or terrible?  Provide an explanation of your reasoning.

Tuesday, February 12, 2013

Monday, February 11, 2013

Transcription and Translation

D period: click here for the PCR prelab assignment. 

C period: You need to read/watch/listen to information about transcription and translation.  How will you know what's important? Look at your packet and your objective list to keep you on track.

Chose a resource for transcription, then scroll down and chose a resource for translation.

Transcription Resources
1. Read page 247 in the e-book
2. Stages of transcription animation (McGraw Hill) AND processing mRNA (Virtual Cell Video)
3. Mr. T's PowerPoint (slides 3-8)

Translation Resources
1. Read page 251 in the e-book
2. Translation initiation, elongation, termination
3. Mr. T's PowerPoint (slides 9-17)

And as always, there's a crash course video.

Saturday, February 9, 2013

PCR Prelab

We are starting your last lab of the term, which will be a focus of the final exam.  Now, that I have your attention (but really, this lab will be featured on the final exam), here's what you need to do...

Read about PCR (polymerase chain reaction) here.  Select the bullet point "amplification" and click through the stages.  Take notes on how the process works.  Then watch a animation here of PCR in action.

At the start of class you will have a brief, five question quiz on how PCR works and what is the point of the process.

Wednesday, February 6, 2013

Homework Due Next Class

Due Friday for C period, Monday for D period:

Read about DNA replication for homework.

There are a few ways you can do this:

* Watch/Listen/Interact with the DNA replication lab here and take notes.
* Take notes using Mr. T's PowerPoint
* Read page 225 in the module.

If you want to preview review DNA structure and preview DNA replication, you can watch this crash course video.

Canceled! Visiting Speaker - C Period Only

Due to a large winter storm, our guest speaker won't be able to make it.

On Friday (provided there is not a snow storm) Elizabeth Scanlan will visit our class to speak about her work as the Nursing Director of Pain Management Center for Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston.

Scanlan Joins Pain Management Center as Nursing Director

Elizabeth Scanlan, MS, FNP, RN, has been a family nurse practitioner for more than 30 years, delivering primary care to patients ranging in age from newborns to adults. This spring, Scanlan joined the Pain Management Center as its first nursing director.
“The idea of having a nursing director was to blend clinical work with the administrative work,” said Scanlan. “It was important to have a nurse practitioner in this role because one of the current goals of the Pain Management Center is to improve management of patients with chronic opioid use. A nurse practitioner brings the advanced practice skills needed to do this work.”
In her new role, Scanlan will also help the Pain Management Center develop a relationship with the University of Massachusetts nurse practitioner program to precept nurse practitioner students.

Scanlan most recently served as nursing director at Brookside Community Health Center, where she developed and maintained a program of excellence in clinical practice and quality service, secured substantial funding to support program goals and assumed a key clinical role for the implementation of the electronic medical record system.
Scanlan earned her BSN from Villanova University, her MSN from Boston University and her FNP certificate from the University of Massachusetts. She joined Brookside Community Health Center in 1978, where she served as a family nurse practitioner and as a team leader for seven years before she was promoted to nursing director in 1985.

By Wednesday evening, please email me questions you have about pain management, chronic pain, types of disorders, or nursing in general.

Monday, February 4, 2013

Objectives for DNA Structure, Replication, Transcription & Translation

_________ D1. Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate. _____
_________ D2. State the names of the four bases in DNA _____

 _________ D3. Outline how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand. ____

_________ D4. Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds. _____
___________D5. Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA. _____
___________D6. Explain DNA replication in terms
of unwinding the double helix and separation of the strands by helicase, followed by formation of the new complementary strands by DNA polymerase. _____
___________D7. Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA. _____
___________D8. State that DNA replication is semi- conservative. _____
___________D9. Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. _____
___________D10. Outline DNA transcription in terms
of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase. _____
__________D11. Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases. _____
_________ D12. Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation. _____
_________D13. Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide. _____

Friday, February 1, 2013

Homework for Monday & Optional Quiz Wednesday

Today (or tomorrow for D period) we're wrapping up genetics.  On Wednesday you will have a short, optional quiz on the objectives for the cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and genetics.

Homework for Monday:
Our next unit is DNA.
Answer the following questions.  It doesn't matter to me how you get the information (resources posted on the blog under 'DNA,' using the modules, an online textbook, a Crash Course video etc).


1. What are the two chemical components of chromosomes?

2. Originally scientists thought that protein, not DNA was the genetic material.  Why did they think this?

3. What was the significance of Frederick Griffith's study of Streptococcus pneumoniae ?

4. Describe the means by which Hershey and Chase established that DNA, not protein, was in fact the genetic material.

5. Draw and label a nucleotide.

6. Who built the first model of DNA and shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for the discovery of its structure?

7. Complete the table below, naming the five nitrogenous bases and put a check mark in the appropriate columns. Also indicate if the base is found in DNA (D), RNA (R) or both (B).

8. Draw and label four nucleotides, which make up two runs of a DNA ladder. Make sure that the orientation of sugars and phosphates it correct.

Objectives for Genetics

______G1. Define gene, allele and genome. _______

______G2. Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier and test cross. _______
______G3. Determine the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a monohybrid cross using a Punnett grid (square). _______
______ G4. State that some genes have more than two alleles (multiple alleles). _______
______ G5. Describe ABO blood groups as an example of codominance and multiple alleles. _______
______ G6. Explain how the sex is determined in humans. _______
______ G7. State that some genes are present on the X chromosome and absent from the shorter Y chromosome in humans.
______ G8. Define sex linkage. ______
______G9. Explain how scientists can use crossover frequency to determine the position of alleles on a chromosome _______.
______ G10. Describe the inheritance of colour blindness and hemophilia as examples of sex linkage. _______
_____ G11. Explain that female carriers are heterozygous for X-linked recessive alleles. _____
_____ G12. Deduce the genotypes and phenotypes of individuals in pedigree charts. _______
______G13. Explain the consequence of a base substitution mutation in relation to the processes of transcription and translation, using the example of sickle-cell anemia. ________

Cell Cycle & Meiosis Objectives

Cell Cycle & Mitosis Objectives
_________CMM 1. Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G1, S, G2), mitosis and cytokinesis. ___
_________CMM 2. State that tumors (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division and that these can occur in any organ or tissue. ____
_________CMM 3. State that interphase is an active period in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur, including protein synthesis, DNA replication and an increase in the number of mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. ___
_________CMM 4. Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase). ____
_________CMM 5. Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical nuclei. ____
_________CMM 6. State that growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis. _____
Meiosis Objectives
_________CMM 7. State that meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei. ______
_________CMM 8. Define homologous chromosomes. _____
_________CMM 9. Outline the process of meiosis, including pairing of homologous chromosomes and crossing over, followed by two divisions, which results in four haploid cells. _______
_________CMM 10. Explain that non-disjunction can lead to changes in chromosome number, illustrated by reference to Down syndrome (trisomy 21). ________
_________CMM 11. State that, in karyotyping, chromosomes are arranged in pairs according to their size and structure. _____

_________CMM 12. State that karyotyping is performed using cells collected by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, for pre-natal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities. _____
_________CMM 13. Analyze a human karyotype to determine gender and whether non- disjunction has occurred. ______